Epidemiology of invasive Escherichia coli infection and antibiotic resistance status among patients treated in US hospitals: 2009-2016.
Background: Published data is limited on the prevalence and risk of recurrence of extraintestinal invasive Escherichia coli infections (IEIs) in the United States. Methods: The analysis included all inpatient and hospital-based outpatient visits occurring between 2009 and 2016 at hospitals with continuous microbiology data submission to the Premier Healthcare Database for 90 days before and 12 months after the admission or visit. IEI was defined as having positive E. coli culture from a normally sterile site (eg, blood, cerebrospinal fluid). The prevalence of IEI, 12-month risk of recurrent IEI, and antibiotic resistance were assessed. Results: Overall, 144 944 725 hospital visits among 37 207 510 patients were analyzed, and 71 909 IEI events occurred in 67 583 patients, corresponding to an IEI prevalence of 0.50 events per 1000 visits and 1.82 events per 1000 patients. Recurrence was common: 26.9 per 1000 patients had a recurrent IEI in the 12 months after their infection. Most infections were community acquired (66.4%), and urosepsis was most common clinical syndrome (66.0%). The 30-day risk of IEI among patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy was high: 5.03 events per 1000 patients. Among all IEI cases with antibiotic susceptibility testing, 9.18% were resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, 28.22% to fluoroquinolones, and 0.14% to carbapenems. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins increased from 5.46% to 12.97% during the 8-year study period. Conclusions: This real-world study indicates a substantial burden of IEI and recurrent IEI exists in the United States, as well as increasing resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Future research should explore risk factors of recurrent IEI aiming to effectively prevent such infections.