Contrasting demographic histories revealed in two invasive populations of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans.
Globalization and international trade have impacted organisms around the world leading to a considerable number of species establishing in new geographic areas. Many organisms have taken advantage of human-made environments, including buildings. One such species is the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans, which is the most aggressive wood-decay fungus in indoor environments in temperate regions. Using population genomic analyses of 36 full genome sequenced isolates, we demonstrated that European and Japanese isolates are highly divergent and the populations split 3000-19,000 generations ago, probably predating human influence. Approximately 250 generations ago, the European population went through a tight bottleneck, probably corresponding to the fungus colonization of the built environment in Europe. The demographic history of these populations, probably lead to low adaptive potential. Only two loci under selection were identified using a Fst outlier approach, and selective sweep analyses identified three loci with extended haplotype homozygosity. The selective sweep analyses found signals in genes possibly related to decay of various substrates in Japan and in genes involved DNA replication and protein modification in Europe. Our results suggest that the dry rot fungus independently established in indoor environments in Europe and Japan and that invasive species can potentially establish large populations in new habitats based on a few colonizing individuals.