De novo transcriptomic analyses revealed some detoxification genes and related pathways responsive to Noposion Yihaogong® 5% ec (lambda-cyhalothrin 5%) exposure in Spodoptera frugiperda third-instar larvae.
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a polyphagous, invasive insect pest which causes significant losses in important crops wherever it has spread. The use of pesticides in agriculture is a key tool in the management of many important crop pests, including S. frugiperda, but continued use of insecticides has selected for various types of resistance, including enzyme systems that provide enhanced mechanisms of detoxification. In the present study, we analyzed the de novo transcriptome of S. frugiperda larvae exposed to Noposion Yihaogong® 5% emulsifiable concentrate (EC) insecticide focusing on detoxification genes and related pathways. Results showed that a total of 1819 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in larvae after being treated with Noposion Yihaogong® 5% EC insecticide, of which 863 were up- and 956 down-regulated. Majority of these differentially expressed genes were identified in numerous Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including metabolism of xenobiotics and drug metabolism. Furthermore, many of S. frugiperda genes involved in detoxification pathways influenced by lambda-cyhalothrin stress support their predicted role by further co-expression network analysis. Our RT-qPCR results were consistent with the DEG's data of transcriptome analysis. The comprehensive transcriptome sequence resource attained through this study enriches the genomic platform of S. frugiperda, and the identified DEGs may enable greater molecular underpinnings behind the insecticide-resistance mechanism caused by lambda-cyhalothrin.