Mating and adult feeding behaviour influence pheromone production in female Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).
The Asian longhorn beetle (ALB) Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky is a destructive invasive species worldwide. Female ALB produce a pheromone component, α-longipinene, in the genitalia. However, the origin and factors, such as age, mating, adult feeding and host plant, influencing the production of this compound are unclear. Our results showed that virgin female ALB consistently produced α-longipinene at various ages after feeding for several days post eclosion, but unfed adult females never produced this compound. Mating significantly reduced the amount of α-longipinene in female genitalia. α-Longipinene was the most dominant compound in the volatiles emitted by females, but not in those emitted by males or host twigs (Acer pensylvanicum L.). The proportion of α-longipinene among the beetle-released sesquiterpenes that were known to be male antennally active was significantly greater than that emitted by ALB damaged, mechanically damaged or control twigs. These results suggest that ALB females probably derive α-longipinene or a precursor from hosts via adult feeding, and release it at a significantly different ratio from that found in host volatiles. The various ratios of α-longipinene produced by beetles and host twigs may encode information pertaining to multiple purposes such as aggregation, mate and host location.