Impact of global megatrends on the spread of microscopic fungi in the Pannonian Biogeographical Region.
Megatrends are slow processes that are hardly noticeable initially, but later cause long-term global effects. The European Environmental Agency (EEA) has set 11 global megatrends. Some of them - globalization, risk of pandemic, technological development and climate change - have major impacts on microfungi in a vulnerable region of Europe, the Pannonian Biogeographical Region. Due to the globalization, high amount of inocula is imported with tropical fruits, soil and packaging materials. Due to technological development, these fungi gain new habitats in the immediate surroundings of humans. In most of the cases these are considered to be extreme environments for which fungi can increasingly adapt. As a result of climate change, non-native species are more likely to colonize the natural habitats in the region. Some of these fungal species have great effect on human health and agriculture. The effects of global megatrends on fungi raise new issues not only from the point of view of economy and health, but also from plant protection and environmental perspectives. Because of the increasing presence of these fungal species, it is important to take them into account during the development of adaptation strategies.