Plant plasma membrane-resident receptors: surveillance for infections and coordination for growth and development.
As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to pathogen invasions and environmental fluctuations. To overcome the challenges of their surroundings, plants acquire the potential to sense endogenous and exogenous cues, resulting in their adaptability. Hence, plants have evolved a large collection of plasma membrane-resident receptors, including RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASEs (RLKs) and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEINs (RLPs) to perceive those signals and regulate plant growth, development, and immunity. The ability of RLKs and RLPs to recognize distinct ligands relies on diverse categories of extracellular domains evolved. Co-regulatory receptors are often required to associate with RLKs and RLPs to facilitate cellular signal transduction. RECEPTOR-LIKE CYTOPLASMIC KINASEs (RLCKs) also associate with the complex, bifurcating the signal to key signaling hubs, such as MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE (MAPK) cascades, to regulate diverse biological processes. Here, we discuss recent knowledge advances in understanding the roles of RLKs and RLPs in plant growth, development, and immunity, and their connection with co-regulatory receptors, leading to activation of diverse intracellular signaling pathways.