Fast developing Russian wheat aphid biotypes remains an unsolved enigma.
Diuraphis noxia, commonly known as the Russian wheat aphid, is an economically important cereal pest species, highly invasive and reproduces mostly asexually. Remarkably, many new virulent populations continue to develop, despite the lack of genetic diversity in the aphid. Russian wheat aphid is a phloem feeder and is therefore engaged in a continuous arms battle with its cereal host, with the acquisition of virulence central to the breakdown of host resistance. In the review, most attention is given to recent topics about mechanisms and strategies whereby the aphid acquires virulence against its host, with special reference given to the role of noncoding RNA elements, bacteria, and the epigenetic pathway in possibly directing virulence.