Resistance in the genus Spodoptera: key insect detoxification genes.
The genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) includes species that are among the most important crop pests in the world. These polyphagous species are able to feed on many plants, including corn, rice and cotton. In addition to their ability to adapt to toxic compounds produced by plants, they have developed resistance to the chemical insecticides used for their control. One of the main mechanisms developed by insects to become resistant involves detoxification enzymes. In this review, we illustrate some examples of the role of major families of detoxification enzymes such as cytochromes P450, carboxyl/cholinesterases, glutathione S-transferases (GST) and transporters such as ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in insecticide resistance. We compare available data for four species, Spodoptera exigua, S. frugiperda, S. littoralis and S. litura. Molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of these genes in resistance will be described, including the duplication of the CYP9A cluster, over-expression of GST epsilon or point mutations in acetylcholinesterase and ABCC2. This review is not intended to be exhaustive but to highlight the key roles of certain genes.