Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Invasive pneumococcal strain distributions and isolate clusters associated with persons experiencing homelessness during 2018.

Abstract

Background: We aimed to characterize invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) isolates collected from multistate surveillance in the United States during 2018 and examine within-serotype propensities of isolates to form related clusters. Methods: We predicted strain features using whole genome sequencing obtained from 2885 IPD isolates obtained through the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs), which has a surveillance population of approximately 34.5 million individuals distributed among 10 states. Phylogenetic analysis was provided for serotypes accounting for ≥27 isolates. Results: Thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes together with 6C accounted for 23 of 105 (21.9%) of isolates from children aged <5 years and 820 of 2780 (29.5%) isolates from those aged ≥5 years. The most common serotypes from adult IPD isolates were serotypes 3 (413/2780 [14.9%]), 22F (291/2780 [10.5%]), and 9N (191/2780 [6.9%]). Among child IPD isolates, serotypes 15BC (18/105 [17.1%]), 3 (11/105 [10.5%]), and 33F (10/105 [9.5%]) were most common. Serotypes 4, 12F, 20, and 7F had the highest proportions of isolates that formed related clusters together with the highest proportions of isolates from persons experiencing homelessness (PEH). Among 84 isolates from long-term care facilities, 2 instances of highly related isolate pairs from co-residents were identified. Conclusions: Non-PCV13 serotypes accounted for >70% of IPD in ABCs; however, PCV13 serotype 3 is the most common IPD serotype overall. Serotypes most common among PEH were more often associated with temporally related clusters identified both among PEH and among persons not reportedly experiencing homelessness.