Piper aduncum essential oil: a promising insecticide, acaricide and antiparasitic. a review.
Several studies have assessed the potential of essential oils as substitutes for synthetic pesticides, in order to counter insect resistance to commercial pesticides. Piper aduncum L. is a very common shrub in the Amazon Rainforest and in other subtropical areas. The objective of this review was to analyse the existing information on P. aduncum essential oil as a raw material for new bioproducts for sustainable pest disease management. With this review, we collected and critically analysed 59 papers, representing all the studies that aimed to evaluate the essential oil properties of this species as an insecticide, acaricide and antiparasitic. The chemical composition differs depending on the origin, although phenylpropanoid dillapiole is the most cited component, followed by myristicin, 1,8-cineole and β-ocimene. Between the acaricidal, antiparasitic and synergistic activities, the insecticidal effects are highly promising, with optimal results against the malaria vector Aedes aegypti, with an LC50 that ranges between 57 and 200μg/mL. Acaricidal activity has mainly been reported against Tetranychus urticae, showing an LC50 that ranges between 5.83 and 7.17μg/mL. Antiparasitic activity has predominately been found on Leishmania amazonensis, and antipromastigote activity has been found to be between 23.8 and 25.9μg/mL. Concerning the synergistic effect between dillapiole and synthetic insecticides, four studies on Spodoptera frugiperda found promising results with cypermethrin. In this review, we highlighted the potential of P. aduncum essential oil as a biopesticide, also focusing on the lack of information about applied research. We also provide suggestions for future investigations.