Cold tolerance of laboratory-reared Asian longhorned beetles.
Low winter temperatures in temperate climates can limit the success of non-native species. The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, is an invasive wood-boring pest of hardwood trees in North America and Europe. Native A. glabripennis populations are spread across several climate zones in China and the Korean Peninsula and are likely to encounter low temperatures in at least some of this range. Understanding the lethal limits of the overwintering life stages of A. glabripennis is essential for accurately modeling the risk that invasive populations pose to non-native environments. In this study, we provide the first systematic characterization of the cold tolerance strategy and lower lethal limits of A. glabripennis eggs, larvae, and pupae. In diapausing larvae, the most common overwintering stage in this species, we measure hemolymph glycerol and osmolality and identify the effects of prolonged low temperature exposure. In developing pupae, we identify sublethal effects caused by low temperature exposure before freezing. Eggs and larvae were the most cold-tolerant life stages; eggs were freeze-avoidant with an average supercooling point of -25.8°C and larvae were freeze tolerant with an LT90 of -25°C. Hemolymph osmolality of freeze-tolerant larvae, on average, increased to 811 mOsm during chilling. This increase was primarily driven by a concurrent, average increase of 232 mM hemolymph glycerol. Pupae died upon exposure to freezing temperatures, but accumulate strong sublethal effects prior to freezing, indicating that they are chill susceptible. Taken together, these data will be useful to inform species distribution modeling in A. glabripennis.