Identification of blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) volatiles as Drosophila suzukii attractants.
The spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive pest species from Southeast Asia that was recently introduced in Europe and North America. As this fruit fly lays its eggs in ripening soft-skinned fruit, it causes great damage to a variety of crops, including cherries, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, grapes, plums and strawberries. Consequently, there is a great demand for an effective and species-specific lure, which requires the development of successful attractants. Until now, there is no lure available that is species-specific and can detect the presence of D. suzukii before infestation. As blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) is one of the preferred host crops of D. suzukii, the volatile compounds of R. fruticosus berries are here identified and quantified using multiple headspace SPME (solid phase micro extraction) GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). Subsequently, the attractivity of 33 of the identified compounds was tested with a two-choice laboratory bioassay. Acetaldehyde, hexyl acetate, linalool, myrtenol, L-limonene and camphene came out as significantly attractive to D. suzukii. The first four attractive compounds induced the strongest effect and therefore provided the best prospects to be implemented in a potential lure. These findings could contribute towards the development of more effective attractants for monitoring and mass trapping D. suzukii.