Assessment of pharmacological activities of Lygodium microphyllum Cav. leaves in the management of pain, inflammation, pyrexia, diarrhea, and helminths: in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches.
Lygodium microphyllum Cav. (Family: Lygodiaceae) is a perennial, snake fern and an invasive weed in Florida and also known as old world climbing fern. This study is intended to evaluate the antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and anthelmintic activity of methanol extract of Lygodium microphyllum Cav. leaves (MELM) by in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches. In addition, Biovia, PyRx autoDock Vina, UCSF Chimera have been applied to investigate the docking study in order to evaluate the binding interaction and an online tool was used to explore the ADME/T properties of selected bioactive compounds. In acetic acid induced writhing study, MELM inhibited 44.28% and 56.61% of writhes at 200 and 400 (mg/kg) respectively compared to standard drug Diclofenac-Na (10 mg/kg) (74.42% inhibition). In anti-inflammatory experiment by formalin triggered licking method, MELM caused significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of licking in both early phase (42.97%, 63.30%) and late phase (43.35%, 63.03%) at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively, whereas reference drug Ibuprofen inhibited paw licking 77.18% in early phase and 76.86% in late phase. MELM also showed promising antipyretic potential where the maximum reduction of fever was produced by MELM 400 mg/kg whose fever lowering capacity is close to the prescribe drug Indomethacin 4 mg/kg, i.p. In Castor oil triggered diarrhea method, MELM delayed the onset time of diarrhea, continuous persistence of wet feces, and decreased the weight of wet feces remarkably. Defection inhibition was achieved 27.56% and 51.72%, for MELM 200 and at 400 (mg/kg) respectively while loperamide 2 (mg/kg) yields 55.17% inhibition of the diarrheal defecation. In anthelmintic bioassay, MELM took 5.83 ± 0.83 and 41.67 ± 1.78 min respectively for paralyzing and death compared to standard drug albendazole; (paralysis time 4.00 ± 0.73 min and death time 31,00 ± 1.71 min). Isoeleutherol, isoquercetin and quercetin were found prominent in molecular docking study and ADME/T analysis verified their drug likeliness. The research validates the moderate analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and remarkable antipyretic, antidiarrheal, anthelmintic activities of the plant extract which can be used an alternative source of novel therapeutics.