Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis from invasive and non-invasive infections in Spain: combining epidemiology, molecular characterization, and genetic diversity.
The purpose of this study was to characterize the antibiotic resistance, virulence, and genetic diversity among invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) isolates. SDSE were isolated from clinical samples of outpatients and inpatients cares in La Rioja region (Spain) during 2012-2015. The analyses performed were susceptibility testing by disc diffusion, resistance and virulence genes by PCR, emm typing by PCR and sequencing, and other molecular typing by SmaI-PFGE and MLST. Forty-two SDSE isolates were recovered (64.3% non-invasive, 35.7% invasive) that were grouped in 31 PFGE patterns, 17 ST, and 14 emm types, being stC1400, stG6792, and stG62647 the most frequent, and stC74a and stC5345 exclusive in invasive SDSE. Twenty-one SDSE were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The erm(TR) and erm(B) genes were linked with resistance to macrolides; tet(M) and tet(T) to tetracycline; dfrF to trimethoprim; ant(6)-Ia and aph(3')-IIIa to aminoglycosides; and the substitutions Asp80Ala in GyrA and Ser79Phe in ParC with resistance to levofloxacin. The sagA, slo, scpA, and ska virulence genes were amplified in 93% SDSE. Streptococcal superantigenic speGdys gene was identified in 80% of invasive and 63% of non-invasive SDSE and correlated with certain emm types (e.g., stG62647 or stG6792). SDSE invasive infections were most frequent in elderly patients, and half of our SDSE were resistant to at least one antibiotic tested. This work is the first detection of tet(T), dfrF, and new substitution in GyrA protein in SDSE. A high diversity of circulating genetic lineages was found among our SDSE.