Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize).
Economic losses in maize due to P. stewartii subsp. stewartii have been inconsequential in North America for the past 50 years except for a few, small sporadic outbreaks and a few extensive epidemics on susceptible sweetcorn hybrids (Pepper, 1967; Anderson, 1986; Anderson and Buzzell, 1986; Pataky et al., 1996; Pataky et al., 2000b). The lack of economic importance of this disease in North America is due primarily to adequate levels of resistance incorporated into maize hybrids that are grown where the disease occurs. Stewart's wilt caused substantial economic losses in the 1930s before the development of resistant cultivars (Pepper, 1967). Severe losses due to Stewart's wilt were reported in Italy in the 1940s and the disease reoccurred there as an important problem in the 1980s (Anon., 1983; Mazzucchi, 1984).