Plantago asiatica mosaic virus.
PlAMV was first described from the wild/weedy plant Plantago asiatica in the Russian Far East, and a Nandina mosaic isolate from cultivated Nandina domestica in the USA. PlAMV also naturally infects P. asiatica and Rehmannia glutinosa in the Republic of Korea, and N. domestica, Primula sieboldii, Lilium maximowiczii [Lilium leichtlinii var. maximowiczii] and Viola grypoceras in Japan. PlAMV has also been detected in commercially grown lilies in the Netherlands and elsewhere in Europe, Taiwan, the USA, Republic of Korea, Chile, China, New Zealand, India and Costa Rica. Japanese lily isolates are distinct from 'European-like' lily isolates, suggesting more than one introduction into lilies. Widespread occurrence in cultivated lilies is likely due to international distribution of infected bulbs. Losses of up to 80% have been reported in commercial greenhouse cut-flower production. PlAMV is able to spread readily through soil by uptake (and probably exudation) through the roots and is quite stable in contaminated planting media; no animal vector is known. PlAMV has a wide experimental host range.