Widespread multiple insecticide resistance in the major dengue vector Aedes albopictus in Hainan Province, China.
Background: Aedes albopictus is a highly invasive mosquito and has become a potential vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Insecticide-based mosquito interventions are the main tools for vector-borne disease control. However, mosquito resistance to insecticides is a major threat to effective prevention and control. Five Ae. albopictus populations across Hainan Province, China were investigated for susceptibility to multiple insecticide and resistance mechanisms. Results: Larval bioassays indicated that resistance to pyrethroids was common in all larval populations. Adult bioassays revealed all populations were either resistant or highly resistant to at least four of the six synthetic insecticides (deltamethrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, propoxur, malathion, and DDT) tested. Pre-exposure of mosquitoes to the synergistic agent piperonyl butoxide (PBO) increased mosquito mortality by 2.4-43.3% in bioassays to DDT, malathion, and permethrin and rendered mosquito sensitive to deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, and propoxur. The frequency of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations (F1534S and F1534C) ranged from 69.8% to 89.3% and from 38.1% to 87.0% in field-resistant and sensitive populations, respectively. F1534S mutation was significantly associated with pyrethroid resistance. No mutation was detected in the acetylcholinesterase (ace-1) gene in the two examined populations. Conclusion: This study provides evidence of widespread resistance to multiple insecticides in Ae. albopictus in Hainan Province, China. Both kdr mutations and metabolic detoxification were potential causes of insecticide resistance for Ae. albopictus. Our findings highlight the need for insecticide resistance management and mosquito control measures that do not entirely depend on synthetic insecticides.