First record of the invasive leafhopper Sophonia orientalis in mainland Portugal.
The presence of Sophonia orientalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in mainland Portugal is reported here for the first time. Previous reports of S. orientalis in mainland Europe include only three detections in the Iberian Peninsula (Gibraltar, Andalusia and Catalonia). Species identification was confirmed both by morphological analysis of male genitalia and molecular analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene sequence. Forty specimens of S. orientalis were found associated to three crops (orange orchards, peach orchards and vineyards) from distinct regions across Portugal. The wide distribution of plots where specimens were collected suggests introduction might not be recent, and that this species has successfully established in the territory. Given the known invasive potential of S. orientalis in Hawaii, where it is a pest of multiple crops and a threat to native plant biodiversity, particular attention should be paid to this species in the future.