Exploratory survey of spotted lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) and its natural enemies in China.
An invasive population of spotted lanternfly (SLF), Lycorma delicatula White, was first noted in North America in Pennsylvania in 2014, and by September 2020 populations had spread to six additional states. To develop a biocontrol program to aid in the management of the pest, exploratory surveys for SLF natural enemies in its native range were carried out in 27 provinces and other administrative regions of China from 2015 to 2019. Naturally laid egg masses were collected and sentinel SLF egg masses were deployed to attract egg parasitoids, and yellow sticky traps were used to collect SLF nymphs to discover and determine the parasitism rates of nymphal parasitoids. Results show that SLF is widely distributed in China (22 provinces and regions) and that the population densities in northeast China are higher than in southern and western China. An egg parasitoid, Anastatus orientalis Yang (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), and a nymphal parasitoid, Dryinus sinicus Olmi (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), were collected. Anastatus orientalis was reared from SLF eggs in seven provinces in China with parasitoid emergence rates ranging from 4.0 to 15.5% (or 17.6 to 37.3% if including only egg masses that had at least some parasitism). There were significant differences in parasitoid emergence rates between sites associated with factors including habitat and host plants. Dryinus sinicus was discovered in eight cities across six provinces. The percentage of SLF nymphs parasitized by D. sinicus were 31.1, 23.3, and 0% in Tai'an, Shandong Province, Beijing City, and Yan'an, Shaanxi Province, respectively. These two parasitoids are promising natural enemies that are being considered as potential biocontrol agents of invasive populations of SLF.