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Abstract

Investigation into seasonal variations of chemical compounds of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) grown in Turkey.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to identify the volatile compounds and fatty acids of needle and cones of Maritime Pine, a fast growing exotic species in Turkey, and investigate the seasonal differences of these essential oils and fatty acids components. The needle, cone and bark samples of the Maritime Pine were collected in Bartın Region in four different seasons (2015 November, 2016 February, May and August). Essential oils of collected samples were obtained through hydrodistillation method. Volatile components were determined through GC-MS. In general, it was found that needle had more components than cones for all seasons, moreover, α-pinene, germacrene-D, trans-β-caryophyllene, β-pinene, myrcene, β-phellandrene, α-terpineol and δ-cadinene were identified as the main components in needle samples while α-pinene, β-pinene, germacrene-D, junipene, β-phellandrene, myrcene, α-terpineol and δ-cadinene were identified as the main components in cone samples. Among the main components in needle samples, α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene and β-phellandrene levels were detected the highest in November whereas germacrene-D, δ-cadinene and trans-β-caryophyllene were found to be the at highest levels in February. As the last main component of needle, α-terpineol turned out to be the highest in August. On the other hand, among the main components of cones, β-pinene, junipene, germacrene-D, and δ-cadinene were detected at highest levels in August while myrcene and α-terpineol were found to be highest in February. Among the other main components of cones, α-pinene was detected as highest in May whereas β-phellandrene turned out to be highest in November. On the other hand, fatty and resins acids of needle, cones and bark samples were extracted in hexane through soxhlet appartus and they were also determined through GC-MS. 16 components in needle, 17 components in cones and 22 components in bark were identified for all seasons. Generally, through November to August it was determined that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids amount decreased in needle and bark just as resin acids amount decreased in cones.