Coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), a global pest of coffee: perspectives from historical and recent invasions, and future priorities.
Coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), CBB) has invaded nearly every coffee-producing country in the world, and it is commonly recognized as the most damaging insect pest of coffee. While research has been conducted on this pest in individual coffee-growing regions, new insights may be gained by comparing and contrasting patterns of invasion and response across its global distribution. In this review, we explore the existing literature and focus on common themes in the invasion biology of CBB by examining (1) how it was introduced into each particular region and the response to its invasion, (2) flight activity and infestation patterns, (3) economic impacts, and (4) management strategies. We highlight research conducted over the last ten years in Hawaii as a case study for the development and implementation of an effective integrated pest management (IPM) program for CBB, and also discuss biosecurity issues contributing to incursion and establishment. Potential areas for future research in each of the five major components of CBB IPM (monitoring and sampling, cultural, biological, chemical, and physical controls) are also presented. Finally, we emphasize that outreach efforts are crucial to the successful implementation of CBB IPM programs. Future research programs should strive to include coffee growers as much as possible to ensure that management options are feasible and cost-effective.