Functional characterization of chemosensory protein amalcsp5 from apple buprestid beetle, Agrilus mali (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).
In the sensitive and complex chemo-sensation system of insects, chemosensory proteins (CSPs) can facilitate the transfer of chemical information and play important roles for variable behaviors of insects. We cloned the chemosensory protein AmalCSP5 from antennae of the apple buprestid beetle (Agrilus mali Matsumura), a serious invasive pest of wild apple trees. Expression profiling showed that AmalCSP5 was expressed in various tissues, suggesting its significance in multiple physiological activities and behaviors of A. mali. AmalCSP5 was preferentially expressed in female antennae and male abdomens. AmalCSP5 was able to bind a variety of test volatiles, especially alcohols and esters. AmalCSP5 exhibited good binding affinity for all five test secondary compounds (i.e., procyanidin, phlorizin, kaemferol, chlorogenic acid, and rutin), suggesting its preferential binding abilities to nonvolatile host plant secondary metabolites and critical roles in gustatory perception of nonvolatiles. Tyr27 and Ser69 of AmalCSP5 could form hydrogen bonds with hexyl benzoate and hexyl hexanoate, respectively. Procyanidin, the best ligand among all test compounds, could form hydrogen bonds with three amino acid residues (i.e., Arg7, Leu8, and Lys41) of AmalCSP5. Thus, high ligand binding affinity for AmalCSP5 seemed to be dependent mainly on the formation of hydrogen bonds. The putative key amino acid residues of AmalCSP5 can be used as molecular targets for designing and screening new attractants and repellents for A. mali. Our results provide insights into binding interactions of AmalCSP5 with volatile and nonvolatile ligands, and a firm basis for developing eco-friendly management strategies of A. mali.