Baseline response, monitoring, and cross-resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to sodium channel blocker insecticides in Brazil.
Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is one of the key cross-crop pests in Brazilian agroecosystems. Field-evolved resistance of S. frugiperda to some conventional insecticides and Bt proteins has already been reported. Thus, the use of insecticides with new mode of action such as sodium channel blockers (indoxacarb and metaflumizone) could be an important tool in insecticide resistance management (IRM) programs. To implement a proactive IRM, we conducted baseline response and monitoring to indoxacarb and metaflumizone in 87 field populations of S. frugiperda collected from major maize-growing regions of Brazil from 2017 to 2020, estimated the frequency of resistance alleles to indoxacarb, and evaluated cross-resistance of indoxacarb and metaflumizone to some selected insecticides and Bt proteins. Low variation in susceptibility to indoxacarb (4.6-fold) and metaflumizone (2.6-fold) was detected in populations of S. frugiperda in 2017. The frequency of the resistance allele to indoxacarb was 0.0452 (0.0382-0.0527 CI 95%), by using F2 screen method. The mean survival at diagnostic concentration, based on CL99, varied from 0.2 to 12.2% for indoxacarb and from 0.0 to 12.7% for metaflumizone, confirming high susceptibility of S. frugiperda to these insecticides in Brazil. No cross-resistance was detected between sodium channel blocker insecticides and other insecticides (organophosphate, pyrethroid, benzoylurea, spinosyn, and diamide) and Bt proteins. These findings showed that sodium channel blocker insecticides are important candidates to be exploited in IRM strategies of S. frugiperda in Brazil.