Characteristics of colorectal carcinoma patients with PMS2 defects detected by immunohistochemistry.
Lynch syndrome is the most prevalent form of familial colorectal cancer (CRC) and is caused by pathogenic germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations. MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 mutations have been well studied, but the rate and characteristics of PMS2 mutations are rare, especially in China. This study enrolled 1706 unselected patients with CRC who underwent colorectal resection from June 2016 to November 2018, the MMR status and clinicopathological features were analysed. A total of 11.8% of patients with CRC had defects in at least one MMR-related protein. Among them, 8.3% were identified with PMS2 defects, and 3.1% of patients had isolated PMS2 defects. Compared with MMR-proficient CRC, PMS2-defect CRC occurred more frequently in the right colon and less frequently in the rectum, had more poorly differentiated and mucinous carcinoma cases, and had fewer perineural invasions and a lower pN stage but a more advanced pT stage and a larger tumour size. In the cases with PMS2 defect, there were fewer tumours in the right colon, fewer poorly differentiated cases and smaller tumour sizes than in the cases with both MLH1 and PMS2 defects. In addition, in cases with isolated PMS2 defects, there were more tumours in the right colon and, more mucinous carcinoma cases than in cases with MMR-proficient CRCs, but had a similar cancer onset age. This study identified the rate, clinicopathological and age characteristics of PMS2 defects in CRCs in China and highlighted the importance of universal screening and germline detection of PMS2 in CRC.