Genomics, transcriptomics, and peptidomics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) neuropeptides.
Neuropeptides control many physiological and behavioral processes, and so they are functionally important classes of cell-to-cell signaling molecules. Nowadays, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is one of the most destructive agricultural pests in the world. In this study, we mined the publicly accessible genome assembly data for S. frugiperda, and the transcriptomic and proteomic data of the larval central nervous system (CNS) for putative neuropeptide-encoding, and subsequently we used these to anticipate a peptidome for this species. In essence, we could identify 57 orthologs of insect neuropeptides, including Allatotropin, CCHamide, Corazonin, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, short neuropeptide F, Trissin, and Natalisin. Interesting features for S. frugiperda were the absence of genes coding for CNMamide, Elevein, and the differential evolution of ancestral neuropeptide genes such as adipokinetic corazonin-related peptide, adipokinetic hormone, Tachykinin, and Natalisin. In conclusion, our study provides the most complete neuropeptide description for the important pest S. frugiperda as a foundation to study the factors regulating insect growth, reproduction, and behavior. Second, we confirm that a comprehensive multi-omics analysis is necessary for the identification of neuropeptides. Finally, our data provide a reliable reference for other comparative studies in other insects beyond the supermodel insect of Drosophila melanogaster and the finding of potential candidates as selective for pests versus beneficial insects.