An updated review on the harmful and beneficial effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L.
Parthenium hysterophorus is an annual ephemeral weed belonging to the Asteraceae family. It is highly pernicious to humans, animals, plants and the environment. It has the potential to invade and take over a large area over a very short time through allelopathy. Presently, parthenium weed is among the ten worst most hazardous and devastating weeds of the world. In Malaysia, the weed is gradually becoming a serious threat to humans, domestic animals and the ecosystem. However, research findings over the years have proven that apart from the deleterious effects, it has some potential that can be utilized for medical, agricultural and industrial uses. To fully evaluate the potential of this weed for human use, a complete knowledge on its beneficial and harmful effects most be known. This review is an effort to update the current knowledge on the harmful and beneficial effects of the weed on humans, animals, plants and the environment.