Invasive Species Compendium

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Abstract

Spreading routes of African swine fever in Poland in 2019.

Abstract

This paper presents the ways of African swine fever virus (ASFV), transmission to new areas and its occurrence in wild boar and pigs in Poland in 2019. Analysis of ASFV virus incidence in feral pigs and the disease outbreaks in farmed pigs has confirmed that the primary and the only reservoir of the virus is wild boar. In turn, two entirely different routes in virus spreading can be identified. The first one, concerns the spread of ASFV in the wild areas through infected wild boars. Transmission of the virus in this way is slow but steady and gradual. Moreover in these areas the virus also appears on pig farms, but the vector is no longer wild boar. There are so-called mechanical vectors, including largely multi-directional human activities. The second way of ASF transmission results in its spread to areas quite distant from the current occurrence, with the man as the major source of ASFV. Regardless of the routes and possible virus spreading, biosecurity measures should be considered as the primary preventive procedures. The aim of this article was to present and discuss those measures that apply both to pig breeders and all people within the area of occurrence and threat of ASF transmission.