Concentrations and long-term temporal trends of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDD) in lake trout and walleye from the Great Lakes.
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a hazardous, persistent, bioaccumlative brominated flame retardant. To investigate how its use has affected the Great Lakes, total HBCDD (ΣHBCDD) concentrations and temporal trends in homogenized whole fish samples from the Great Lakes region (1978 to 2016) were determined. ΣHBCDD concentrations (ng/g ww) for each lake are Erie (0.49-2.60), Ontario (3.12-8.90), Michigan (3.91-9.01), Superior (5.69-13.1), and Huron (5.57-13.7). Early years (1978 to 1992) showed no significant trend. However, recent trends (2004 to 2016) suggest concentrations are increasing in Lakes Erie and Ontario, decreasing in Lakes Superior and Michigan, and not changing in Lake Huron. Decreasing trends for Lakes Superior and Michigan are likely the result of decreased usage of the compound globally, regionally, and locally. For the other lakes, increasing or zero trends are consistent with food web changes due to invasive species and climate change, which has caused more intense storms and less ice cover leading to increased sediment resuspension.