Functions of constructed wetland animals in water environment protection - a critical review.
Constructed wetlands (CWLs) are widely used for water environment protection. In some cases, CWL animals can help improve CWL treatment efficiency and contribute to CWL maintenance and management. However, while plants, microorganisms, and substrates in CWLs have received much attention, animals have been largely ignored. Therefore, the aims of this review are to determine the roles wetland animals play in the water environmental protection of CWLs. This study introduced species of wetland animals and the main factors that can affect their survival. The way in which CWL animals affect pollutants was discussed in detail from four perspectives: adsorption and bioaccumulation, bioturbation, and the influence of CWL animals on plants and microorganisms. The characteristics of CWL animals that can be used for biological monitoring are summarized, and the use of CWLs for the protection of wetland biodiversity is also discussed. Finally, some prospects are proposed for future research. This study will help researchers better understand the role of CWL animals in CWLs and encourage researchers to focus on studies of wetland animals.