Morphology, life cycle and management of two invasive subspecies of Papilio demoleus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): a review.
Papilio demoleus L., also known as the citrus butterfly or chequered swallowtail, is a common species in the Asia-Pacific region, with two of its subspecies (P. d. demoleus and P. d. malayanus) posing significant threats to the citrus industry in Asia and other regions of the world. Its predominant natural host plants are the Rutaceae for the invasive northern subspecies and Fabaceae for the southern subspecies. The morphology and development of this species are reasonably well studied, although further information is required on its natural mortality rates and environmental tolerance in order to accurately predict its future potential spread throughout the Middle East and Central Americas. Synthetic pyrethroids such as deltamethrin are highly effective for the control of P. demoleus larvae. However, better control is likely to be found using an integrated approach to pest management, incorporating techniques such as biocontrol agents, microbial pesticides and phytopesticides, in conjunction with synthetic pesticides where required.