Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Native pollinators of avocado as affected by constructed pollinator habitat gardens in Southern California.

Abstract

In three commercial avocado orchards in Southern California, pollinator gardens were constructed and maintained to attract potential avocado pollinator arthropods from 2014 to 2018. Bee species and other insects were monitored in both the gardens, on the avocado flowers, and around the garden and control sites. Twenty-four plant types were used in each garden, consisting of almost equal numbers of California native versus non-native species (and cultivars). An accumulation of 90 bee species were collected from all three orchards, and each year more species were added as the gardens matured. More than 30 insect species were recorded visiting avocado flowers, and half of these were native bee species. The non-bees were mostly flies, and especially in the family Syrphidae.