Agricultural intensification at Cerrado: implementation of ILPF system with forage sorghum, Marandu grass and eucalyptus in the central region of Minas Gerais, brazi.
Implementing ILPF systems (Crop-Livestock-Forest) with the insertion of the forestry component arranged in ranches in the pasture, requires a change of paradigms still present in the livestock activity. When choosing species, a series of technical indicators must be taken into account, such as the main activity of the property and the edaphoclimatic characteristics of the cultivation region. This work aimed to demonstrate a modality of sustainable agricultural intensification for the Central region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, through the implementation of an ILPF system, from the cultivation of forage sorghum intercropped with Marandu grass and, simultaneously, the introduction of the forest component. The 44-hectare experimental area was divided into four paddocks of 11 hectares. Each paddock received fertility management, which constituted the treatments: 1. Regional pattern of correction and fertilization; 2. Improved standard; 3. Intensified pattern; 4. Potential pattern. These treatments refer to increasing levels of use of correctives and fertilizers, until the treatment of greater intensification of the system (treatment 4). The implantation of the area and treatments started in September 2017. Eucalyptus was planted in January 2018. After sowing the forage sorghum BRS 658 and Marandu grass (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu), the following were evaluated: Forage sorghum and Marandu grass; Plant height, height variation, growth rate, leaf area and leaf expansion of forage sorghum; Productivity and accumulation of dry matter of forage sorghum; Yield of green and dry matter of forage sorghum and Marandu grass, Yield of total green and dry matter and Marandu grass/forage sorghum ratio when harvesting for silage; Extraction of nutrients by forage sorghum at the time of silage harvest; Determination of the chemical-chemical composition of forage sorghum at the time of silage harvest; Plant height, dry matter productivity and chemical-chemical composition of post-harvest silage Marandu grass. The little drought that occurred in January 2018, associated with the intense attack of Spodoptera frugiperda during the vegetative period of forage sorghum, severely affected the productivity of silage. Even so, the increase in fertility management provided greater vegetative development, accumulation of dry matter and bromatological quality of forage sorghum and reduced competition with Marandu grass. Responses to fertility management promoted greater forage productivity after harvesting silage and, even after 12 months of implantation, there was a significant response of grass productivity in the best fertility management treatments demonstrating that, in ILPF systems, the response to increasing of nutrients and improvement of the productive environment should take into account the longtime of conduction of the system.