Impact and management of diseases in the propagation of fruit plants.
Propagation Well-formed and healthy propagative material is essential for economic success in fruit growing. The health of the seedlings must be ensured during production to prevent the death of plants and spread of pathogens to new areas, which cause an increase in production costs and reduction in yield, with some pathogens making production unviable in the areas where they are introduced. The most viable strategy for disease control in propagative material is the use of resistant cultivars. However, for many fruit cultivars sources of resistance have not yet been identified and in some cases the resistance is "broken" by the emergence of new races of the pathogen. Other measures are also important and recommended in plant propagation, such as the use of integrated disease management, the use of cultural and biological methods, substrate preparation, irrigation management, grafting, balanced nutrition and use of organic matter, eliminating the initial inoculum, and reducing the disease rate. Among the various procedures in nurseries for ensuring the health of seedlings are the use of pathogen-free seeds and cuttings, handling of substrates in clean facilities, disinfection of hands, tools and containers, maintenance of water quality for irrigation, and the elimination of invasive plants. It is important to clean the nurseries and have a suitable place for the disposal of seedlings, substrates and crop residues. A record and history of the operations in the production of seedlings should be a routine, as well as security and control in access to greenhouses or nurseries. The application of knowledge and the best strategies of integrated disease management for the production of healthy seedlings, guarantees the quality of the productive material and the success of the crop. Index Terms: Propagative material, diseases, control, management.