Vector-borne viruses in Turkey: a systematic review and bibliography.
Turkey serves as a natural hub for the dissemination of vector-borne viruses and provides many suitable habitats with diverse ecologies for introduction and establishment of new pathogens. This manuscript provides an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the vector-borne viruses documented in Turkey. Following web-based identification, screening and eligibility evaluation, 291 published reports were reviewed. The publications were categorized and listed as a supplementary bibliography accompanying the manuscript. In brief, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are currently documented as prominent tick and mosquito-borne viral pathogens in Turkey. CCHFV produces a significant number of infections annually, with severe outcome or death in a portion of cases. WNV gained attention following the clustering of cases in 2010. Exposure and infections with sandfly-borne phleboviruses, such as Toscana virus, are indigenous and widespread. Epidemiology, risk factors, symptomatic infections in susceptible hosts, vectors and reservoirs for these pathogens have been explored in detail. Detection of novel viruses in mosquitoes, sandflies and ticks from several regions is of particular interest, despite scarce information on their epidemiology and pathogenicity in vertebrates. Introduction and emergence of viruses transmitted by invasive Aedes mosquitoes constitute a threat, albeit only imported infections have so far been documented. Detection of Rift valley fever virus exposure is also of concern, due to its detrimental effects on livestock and spillover infections in humans. Vigilance to identify and diagnose probable cases as well as vector surveillance for established and potential pathogens is therefore, imperative.