Stratification of acute kidney injury in COVID-19.
Despite myriad improvements in the care of COVID-19 patients, atypical manifestations are least appreciated during the current pandemic. Because COVID-19 is primarily manifesting as an acute respiratory illness with interstitial and alveolar pneumonia, the possibility of viral invasions into the other organs cannot be disregarded. Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been associated with various viral infections including dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and HIV. The prevalence and risks of AKI during the course of COVID-19 have been described in few studies. However, the existing literature demonstrate great disparity across findings amid variations in methodology and population. This article underscores the propensity of AKI among COVID-19 patients, limitations of the exiting evidence, and importance of timely identification during the case management. The prevalence of AKI is variable across the studies ranging from 4.7% to 81%. Evidence suggest old age, comorbidities, ventilator support, use of vasopressors, black race, severe infection, and elevated levels of baseline serum creatinine and d-dimers are independent risk factors of COVID-19 associated with AKI. COVID-19 patients with AKI also showed unsatisfactory renal recovery and higher mortality rate as compared with patients without AKI. These findings underscore that AKI frequently occurs during the course of COVID-19 infection and requires early stratification and management.