Molecular phylogenetic analysis of New Zealand mosquito species.
Taxonomic information for New Zealand mosquito species is predominantly morphological with very few molecular data available to date. In this study, the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 were amplified and sequenced from DNA templates representing 17 species; 15 previously known New Zealand species, a newly discovered undescribed Aedes species from the Chatham Islands and a recently eradicated invader, Ae. camptorhynchus. This paper provides DNA barcoding sequences for the entire known New Zealand mosquito fauna, the first for the majority of these species. Phylogenetic analysis of COI and ITS1 indicated that the endemic species are all genetically distinct from the exotic species examined including vector species of pathogens of human diseases. The genus Opifex is distant from the genus Aedes based on analysis of ITS1 sequences, and Ae. chathamicus is more closely related to species within Aedes than to the genus Opifex. Results show Culex asteliae to be a valid species but Cx. rotoruae is not necessarily so. The Aedes species appears to be closely related to Ae. subalbirostris. The introduced Cx. quinquefasciatus was clearly shown to be related to Cx. pipiens; however, the endemic Cx. pervigilans was not. No evidence of population variation based on geographic location was detected.