The dog erythrocyte antigen 1 blood group in nondomesticated canids and compatibility testing between domestic dog and nondomesticated canid blood.
Objectives: To type DEA 1 in nondomesticated captive canids and to evaluate potential interspecific blood transfusions between domestic and nondomestic canids. Animals: One hundred forty captive nondomesticated canids belonging to 13 species from 19 French zoos, and 63 domestic dogs. Methods: Prospective study. Blood samples were typed for DEA 1 using immunochromatographic and flow cytometric techniques. A neutral gel column test was used for crossmatching. Results: Of 140 nondomesticated canids, 72.9% were DEA 1+ and 27.1% were DEA 1- using immunochromatographic technique and 74.3% were DEA 1+ and 25.7% were DEA 1- by flow cytometric technique. Crossmatch (XM) between 140 nondomesticated canid red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma from a previously DEA 1+ sensitized DEA 1- dog revealed 112 incompatibilities (80%). Crossmatches between 130 nondomesticated canid serum and 1 or up to 8 donor dogs' RBCs revealed 99 of 130 (76%) compatibilities. Crossmatches between 115 nondomesticated canid RBCs and donor dogs' serum revealed 59 of 115 (51%) compatibilities. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Dog erythrocyte antigen 1 blood type is present in nondomesticated canids with variable prevalence depending on species. The majority of tested nondomesticated canids appear to have no naturally occurring alloantibodies against domestic dogs' RBCs. Therefore xenotransfusion of blood from domestic dogs can be considered when species specific blood is not available. Cross matching is essential before xenotransfusion.