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Abstract

Effects of interspecific chromosome substitution in upland cotton on cottonseed micronutrients.

Abstract

Micronutrients are essential for plant growth and development, and important for human health nutrition and livestock feed. Therefore, the discovery of novel germplasm with significant variability or higher micronutrients content in crop seeds is critical. Currently, there is no information available on the effects of chromosome or chromosome arm substitution in cotton on cottonseed micronutrients. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chromosome or chromosome arm substitution on the variability and levels of micronutrients B, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Ni in cottonseed from chromosome substitution (CS) cotton lines. Our hypothesis was that interspecific chromosome substitution in cotton can affect cottonseed micronutrients content, resulting in significant differences and variabilities of these nutrients among CS lines and between CS lines and the controls. Nine CS lines were grown in two-field experiments at two locations (in 2013 in South Carolina, USA; and in 2014 in Mississippi, USA). TM-1 (the recurrent parent of the CS line) and AM UA48 (cultivar) were used as control. The results showed significant variability among CS lines compared to the controls AM UA48 and TM-1. For example, in South Carolina (SC), B concentration in cottonseed ranged from 10.35 mg kg-1 in CS-M02 to 13.67 mg kg-1 in CS-T04. The concentration of Cu ranged from 4.81 mg kg-1 in CS-B08sh to 7.65 mg kg-1 in CS-T02, and CS-T02 was higher than both controls. The concentration of Fe ranged from 36.09 mg kg-1 to 56.69 mg kg-1 (an increase up to 57%), and six CS lines (CS-B02, CS-B08sh, CS-M02, CS-M04, CS-T02, and CS-T04) had higher concentration than both controls in 2013. In 2014 at the Mississippi location (MS), similar observation was found with CS lines for micronutrients content. The CS lines with higher concentrations of these micronutrients can be used as a genetic tool toward QTL identification for desired seed traits because these lines are genetically similar with TM-1, except the substituted chromosome or chromosome segment pairs from the alien species. Chromosome substitution provides an effective means for upland cotton improvement by targeted interspecific introgression, yielding CS lines that facilitate trait discovery, such as seed micronutritional qualities, due to increased isogenicity and markedly reduced complexity from epistatic interactions with non-target alien chromosomes. The positive correlation between B, Cu, and Fe at both locations, between Ni and Mn, between Zn and Cu, and between Zn and Ni at both locations signify the importance of a good agricultural and fertilizer management of these nutrients to maintain higher cottonseed nutrient content.