Movement behavior of the pine needle gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).
The movement behavior of the pine needle gall midge (Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida Et Inouye (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)), an invasive species in China, was determined by using a tethered flight technique and digital videography in the laboratory. The flight distance, duration, and speed of females were compared at different ages (2-10 h) and ambient temperatures (17, 21, 26, and 30°C). Female flight distance and duration at 26°C were significantly greater than those at 17°C and 21°C. The age of T. japonensis did not significantly affect the three flight characteristics. For females at 2-10 h of age at 26°C and 70% RH, the maximum flight distance was 667.59 m; the longest flight time was 6,222.34 s; and the fastest flight speed was 0.44 m.s-1. For larvae wetted with water, the highest jump was 5.7 cm; the longest jump was 9.6 cm; and the greatest distance moved in 5 min was 27.13 cm, which showed that the active dispersal potential of larvae was very low.