Plant-derived products for the control of poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer, 1778) - a review.
The impact of Dermanyssus gallinae infestation on poultry health and production has driven the poultry industry to look for efficient control measures to be incorporated in integrated pest management (IPM). Attempts have been employed to control, if not, eliminate the infestation which includes application of chemicals, implementation of biological and/or physical measures, vaccination, or use of plant-derived products (PDPs); or a combination of two or more of these measures. Chemical control, though efficient, has limitations such as the development of resistance in mite populations and safety issues concerning environmental residues and non-target organism toxicity. These limitations resulted in banning most of the previously applied synthetic acaricides; thus, attention has been directed to the potential of plant-derived products (PDPs). Among the PDPs reviewed, essential oils of bay, lime dis 5F, pimento berry, spearmint, cade, clove bud, penny royal, coriander, thyme, mustard, horseradish, sweet basil, peppermint and summer savoury savory results in up to 100% mortality by direct contact or fumigation. Whereas, garlic extract and essential oils of thyme, manuka, Eucalyptus citriodora and lavender produce mortality rates from 66% to -95.35% when applied directly or through spray. Three essential oils (penny royal, cinnamon bark and garlic) haves ovicidal effect by direct contact. Other PDPs have the potential to reduce mite population and reproduction rates. This paper reviews PDPs on their efficacy, mode of action and effect on target organisms, advantages, and limitations. Recognizing the potentials and limitations of the different PDPs is important in formulating an effective product (combination of two or more PDPs) for the control of D. gallinae.