The role of weeds from field margins in supporting pollinators.
Field margins are pollinator-friendly habitats and important refuges for many pollinators. As a valuable food resource throughout the vegetation season, not just when crop species are in flower, field margins need to be protect or restore in areas of intensive farming. This paper examines the floristic and functional structure of weed communities on field margins in the northeastern part of the Republic of Croatia. A phytocoenological survey was conducted during the summer period of 2017 and 2018. A total of 32 field margins was analyzed for species richness, abundance and their role for entomofauna. Floristically rich field margins consist of 72,6% plant species beneficial to pollinators. Foraging period can be stretching throughout the year, but stabile and high flowering period is from May to end of September. Among highest ranked honeybee plants, several invasive species with significant relative abundance are: Solidago gigantea, Asclepias syriaca and Amorpha fruticosa who pose a serious threat to plant biodiversity. Positive role of vegetation from field margins was not valuable for pollinators only, but they also serve as supply the substrates that provide a shelter and nesting sites.