Clinical psychopharmacology for the exotic animal practitioner.
Literature regarding the clinical use of psychotropic drugs in exotic animals remains scarce. Psychotropic drugs acting on serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid pathways work by decreasing fear and anxiety, reactivity, and hypervigilance, and by improving impulse control. They are indicated for some cases of aggression, self-mutilation, and compulsive and anxiety disorders, including feather-damaging behavior. Side effects are rarely seen when dosages are appropriately adjusted to the individual, starting with a low dose and slowly titrating to effect. Several drug interactions exist between psychotropic drugs and other classes. Psychotropic drugs cannot be used to replace appropriate environmental conditions in exotic animals before "Side effects".