Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

The results of cultivating tree and shrub species of Far-Eastern origin at Järvselja.

Abstract

The first foreign tree species were introduced into the forests of the Järvselja Training and Experimental Forest District in the 1880s. At that time Martin Maurach had taken up the post of a forester here. The first nursery at Järvselja was established in 1887 in order to produce planting stock. In addition to native species, the seeds obtained from abroad were sown, too. Cultivation of foreign tree species in a forest pursued an aesthetic goal on the one hand and an experimental aim on the other. Foreign tree species were cultivated mainly in groups mixed with local species. From that period Larix kaempferi is growing in the central park of the forest district with a height of 37.5 m and breast height diameter of 92 cm. In 1921, the Training and Experimental Forest District of the University of Tartu was established at Järvselja. The cultivation of foreign tree species was carried out under Andres Mathiesen's guidance. An arboretum, about two hectares in area, founded in 1935 is located near the centre of Järvselja. Various exotic species, mainly conifers, were planted in a thinned birch stand. Of the firs of Far-Eastern origin, Abies sachalinensis, A. veitchii, A. nephrolepis and A. homolepis were planted here. The last species was sensitive to frost. Of the conifers, Picea jezoensis, Pinus koraiensis and Taxus cuspidata grow in the arboretum. Larix gmelinii var. japonica was cultivated in the forest as little forest stands mainly in Myrtillus site type. This species grew in the forest better than other larch species. At that time, several broadleaved trees and shrubs were cultivated at Järvselja, too, such as Juglans mandshurica, Phellodendron amurense, Populus koreana, Pterocarya rhoifolia, Rhododendron dauricum, Syringa amurensis, Acer ginnala, Rosa rugosa, Vitis amurensis and others. All these species are now growing normally. Before the Second World War, Järvselja was one of the largest bases for the propagation of foreign tree species in Estonia. Exotic seedlings cultivated at Järvselja have been introduced in almost all areas of Estonia. In the first years after the war, no foreign tree species were introduced in Järvselja. This activity was revived in 1953 on the iniative of Endel Laas. Since 1964, the author of this paper has been involved in the introduction of foreign tree species in Järvselja. Many new tree and shrub species of Far-Eastern origin have been introduced in Järvselja. A new arboretum on former arable land was established in 1968 at Agali village where foreign tree species were planted as little forest stands. Part of the foreign tree species died due to frost during harsh winters or perished for other reasons. For forest cultivation, Larix kaempferi, L.gmelinii var. japonica, L.gmelinii var. olgensis, Abies veitchii and Populus koreana may be used. More promising conifer species for park management are Abies holophylla, A. koreana, A. sachalinensis var. mayriana, Picea glehnii, Pinus pumila. Of broadleaved trees and shrubs the following suit this purpose: Acer barbinerve, A. pseudosieboldianum, A. tegmentosum, Betula davurica, B. ermanii, Corylus heterophylla, Crataegus maximowiczii, Cr.pinnatifida, Maackia amurensis, Prunus maackii, Pyrus ussuriensis, Schisandra chinensis, Tilia amurensis, Ulmus pumila. Species such as Abies sachalinensis var. gracilis, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Fraxinus chinensis var. rhynchophylla, Kalopanax septemlobus, Prinsepia sinensis are of importance chiefly from the standpoint of dendrological collection.