Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Antibacterial effect of copper composites against Xanthomonas euvesicatoria.

Abstract

Bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas euvesicatoria is one of the major constraints for pepper production in Florida and worldwide. The common prevalence of copper (Cu)-tolerant X. euvesicatoria strains has reduced the efficacy of Cu based bactericides against bacterial spot of pepper. In this study, we evaluated antimicrobial activity of three Cu-based nanocomposites, namely, core-shell Cu (CS-Cu), fixed-quat Cu (FQ-Cu) and mixed-valence Cu (MV-Cu), along with Kocide® 3000, which is a micron size metallic Cu bactericide and is commercially available, both in vitro and in greenhouse trials, against a Cu-tolerant strain of X. euvesicatoria. In repeated in vitro tests, X. euvesicatoria growth was completely inhibited 24 h after exposure of bacterial cells to 500 and 1000 μg/ml of MV-Cu and all concentrations of FQ-Cu and CS-Cu (100, 200, 500, and 1000 μg/ml) treated for 1 h. Micron size copper, even at 1000 μg/ml, had no statistical difference in growth in comparison to the untreated control (P = 0.05; LSD). In the repeated greenhouse experiments, plants treated with all the copper composites exhibited less bacterial spot severity than untreated control and similar or significantly less than Cu-mancozeb (P < 0.05). However, MV-Cu was the only Cu composite with no phytotoxicity on plants under controlled conditions. This study shows potential to use Cu-based nanoparticles for efficient management of bacterial spot on pepper.