Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Antioxidant response of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus to pollution and the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii.

Abstract

Pollution derived from human activities and the arrival of invasive species are common worldwide and affect coastal marine ecosystems negatively, and more especially in a semi-closed sea such as the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers in the gonadal tissue of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) sampled in different areas of Sant Antoni de Portmany (Ibiza Island, Spain) with different anthropic activities, and in an area deeply covered by the invasive red algae Lophocladia lallemandii. The densities of P. lividus were higher in the area with the greatest anthropogenic influence, while the area invaded by L. lallemandii showed the lowest density. A significant increase in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) and the phase II detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) was found in the most impacted area by the human activity. Moreover, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels were also increased in the most impacted area. Similarly, the presence of L. lallemandii induced oxidative stress in P. lividus evidenced by a significant increase in all analysed biomarkers. In conclusion, changes in oxidative stress biomarkers are a good proxy to evaluate the impacts induced by anthropogenic activities and by the presence of invasive algae to P. lividus.