Severe, fatal spirorchiidiasis in confiscated, smuggled black pond turtles (Geoclemys hamiltonii) in Thailand, a case report and review of the literature.
In 2013, hundreds of South Asian turtles and tortoises were confiscated from an animal smuggler in the Suvarnabhumi Airport. Many of the seized animals were suspected to have died due to the stress of the smuggling operation, which was compounded by concurrent diseases; the vast majority of necropsied animals had significant endoparasitism. Two black pond turtles (Geoclemys hamiltonii) were found to be severely affected by systemic vascular spirorchiidiasis, causing significant granulomatous disease in the lungs, kidneys, mesentery, intestines, and liver, and in one of the two animals, within the heart. This is the first report of spirorchiidiasis in black pond turtles.