Avian viruses that impact table egg production.
Eggs are a common source of protein and other nutrient components for people worldwide. Commercial egg-laying birds encounter several challenges during the long production cycle. An efficient egg production process requires a healthy bird with a competent reproductive system. Several viral pathogens that can impact the bird's health or induce reversible or irreversible lesions in the female reproductive organs adversely interfere with the egg industry. The negative effects exerted by viral diseases create a temporary or permanent decrease in egg production, in addition to the production of low-quality eggs. Several factors including, but not limited to, the age of the bird, and the infecting viral strain and part of reproductive system involved contribute to the form of reproductive disease encountered. Advanced methodologies have successfully elucidated some of the virus-host interactions relevant to the hen's reproductive performance, however, this branch needs further research. This review discusses the major avian viral infections that have been reported to adversely affect egg productivity and quality and aims to summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the observed negative effects.