Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory).
Ipomoea indica is a vine that has been widely cultivated as a garden ornamental across tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world (Randall, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). It is an aggressive and opportunistic colonizer of open and disturbed habitats that has escaped from cultivation to become widely naturalized in disturbed areas near gardens, coastal areas, forest edges, and along roadsides and waterways. This species spreads by seeds, stolons, and stem fragments and when growing under favourable environmental conditions (e.g., full sun, ample moisture and fertile soil) it can spread very rapidly, smothering all other vegetation growing nearby. Its rapidly growing stolons can form dense mats over the ground, while its climbing habit enables it to compete successfully with trees and shrubs on the edges of forests and along riparian zones. Its twining stems also choke adjacent seedlings and smother young trees and shrubs in the understory (Wagner et al., 1999; Csurches, 2016). Currently, I. indica is listed as invasive in Australia, New Zealand, China, southern Africa, Europe, the West Indies, and on many islands in the Pacific Region (Smith, 2010 BioNET-EAFRINET, 2017; DAISIE, 2017; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; GRIIS, 2017; PIER, 2017; Queensland Government, 2017).