Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond).
T. catappa is a perennial tree species that has been extensively introduced into littoral habitats, coastal forests, gardens and parks to be used as an ornamental, shade tree, and sand-dune stabilizer (Orwa et al., 2009; ISSG, 2017). This species has become of the most common trees in littoral habitats and beaches across tropical and subtropical regions of America, India, southeastern Asia, and the Pacific Ocean, due in part to human-mediated introductions, the adaptation of its fruits to be dispersed over long-distances by sea currents and its tolerance to salt-spray, coastal-winds and drought conditions (Thomson and Evans, 2006; Brown and Cooprider, 2013). T. catappa is a prolific seed producer and fruits may remain viable for a long time, even after floating in salt water for considerable time periods. This species naturalizes readily in littoral habitats and has been listed as invasive in the United States (Florida and Hawaii), Brazil, the Bahamas, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands where it is displacing native vegetation and altering coastal dynamics (Smith, 2010; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Mir, 2012; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015; FLEPPC, 2017; I3N-Brazil, 2017; ISSG, 2017).