Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Molecular typing reveals high genetic diversity of Xanthomonas translucens strains infecting small-grain cereals in Iran.

Abstract

This study provides a phylogeographic insight into the population diversity of Xanthomonas translucens strains causing bacterial leaf streak disease of small-grain cereals in Iran. Among the 65 bacterial strains isolated from wheat, barley, and gramineous weeds in eight Iranian provinces, multilocus sequence analysis and typing (MLSA and MLST) of four housekeeping genes (dnaK, fyuA, gyrB, and rpoD), identified 57 strains as X. translucens pv. undulosa, while eight strains were identified as X. translucens pv. translucens. Although the pathogenicity patterns on oat and ryegrass weed species varied among the strains, all X. translucens pv. undulosa strains were pathogenic on barley, Harding's grass, rye (except for XtKm35) and wheat, and all X. translucens pv. translucens strains were pathogenic on barley and Harding's grass, while none of the latter group was pathogenic on rye or wheat (except for XtKm18). MLST using the 65 strains isolated in Iran, as well as the sequences of the four genes from 112 strains of worldwide origin retrieved from the GenBank database, revealed higher genetic diversity (i.e., haplotype frequency, haplotype diversity, and percentage of polymorphic sites) among the Iranian population of X. translucens than among the North American strains of the pathogen. High genetic diversity of the BLS pathogen in Iran was in congruence with the fact that the Iranian Plateau is considered the center of origin of cultivated wheat. However, further studies using larger collections of strains are warranted to precisely elucidate the global population diversity and center of origin of the pathogen.